Storage of energy is one of the most important challenges behind the realization of the future low carbon energy society. Most of the renewable sources (e.g. sun, wind) are variable and intermittent in time, thus not matching the demand of energy by end user. Storage of energy, particularly for electricity demand, is a strategic element for several applications and for the realization of a stable, secure and safe European and Global energy grid.
Storage of energy may support different grids / application sectors (e.g. electric, transport fuels, thermal, portable devices) by different technology solutions, mainly:
- Power–to–power: electrical energy is converted into some different form of energy stored, able to be re-converted back into electrical power;
- Power–to–gas: electricity is converted into a fuel. The fuel can be utilized to support different energy grids and/or transport sector;
- Portable: storing energy in a fuel or chemical compound, reversibly or not, to support portable devices in their energy demand.
Energy can be stored in several options, through a proper and efficient conversion, such as:
- Mechanical energy storage: converting electrical energy into gravitational and/or kinetic (e.g. pumped hydro storage, CAES and flywheels);
- Chemical energy storage: converting electrical energy into a chemical reaction and storage (e.g. the electrolysis of H2);
- Electrochemical energy storage: through reversible electrochemical reactions (e.g. batteries and supercapacitors);
- Thermal energy storage: converting electrical energy into heating and attached thermal storage system.
H2 can be produced using electricity via reversible water electrolysis. It can be stored and transformed back into electricity by means of a fuel cell or a combustion engine/turbine. H2 offers the broadest spectrum of potential applications of all storage technologies: from stand-alone systems comprised of electrolysers and fuel cells to integrated powerto-gas concepts providing new degrees of flexibilit by connecting the electricity and gas sectors. Solid state hydrogen storage in magnesium based materials has been extensively studied and reported in literature in terms of material properties as far as tank engineering. The route to achieve the targets required for an efficient and convenient energy storage system is already traced.
EDEN STORAGE SOLUTION
EDEN project is addressing a technology able to store energy in form of hydrogen in a solid state material. EDEN is proposing a high density, fully integrated material – tank – engineered system, able to realize an adaptable energy storage solution for different market applications. EDEN technology is realized through the wide expertise of its partners and by the large experience maturated through past EU projects and activities.